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**NEW**



Maine Coon Special offer:
8 DNA tests for just £84.95 incl VAT
Maine Coon 8 DNA tests bundle (HCM, SMA, PKDef, Poly, b, b1, cb, cs) 
**NEW**



Bengal Special offer:
4 Bengal Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Bengal DNA bundle (rdAc-PRA + b-PRA + PK-Def + Blood Groups) 



British Special offer:
4 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
British Short / Long Hair DNA bundle (PKD + pd-PRA + ALS + Blood Groups)



Burmese Special offer:
4 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Burmese DNA bundle (Hypokalemia (BHK) + Head Defect + Gangliosidosis (GM2) + Blood Groups



Birman Special offer:
5 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Birma DNA bundle (PKD + pd-PRA + Hypotrichiose + MPS6 + Blood Groups)



Maine Coon Special offer:
5 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Maine Coon DNA bundle (HCM1 + SMA + PK-Def + F11 + Blood Groups)



Ragdoll Special offer:
5 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Ragdoll DNA bundle (HCM1 + HCM3 + PKD + pd-PRA + Blood Groups)



Norwegian Special offer:
4 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Norwegian Forest DNA bundle (PK-Def + Amber + GSD4 + Blood Groups)



Feline Special Offer:
8 cat DNA tests for just £84.95 including VAT
HCM, HCR, GSD4, PKD, PRA, PK-Def., SMA, Blood Groups

new test:      Paradoxical Pseudomyotonia (PP) in English Cocker and English Springer Spaniels  
new test:      Dyserythropoietic Anemia and Myopathy Syndrome (DAMS) in English Springer Spaniel
new test:      Lysosomal Storage Diseases (LSD) in Dalmatian and Doberman  
new Kennel Club DNA testing schemes with LABOKLIN:
   Osteochondrodysplasia (OCD) / Skeletal Dwarfism in Miniature Poodles
  DINGS2: Deafness with Vestibular Dysfunction in Doberman
   Dyserythropoietic Anemia and Myopathy Syndrome (DAMS) in English Springer Spaniel


Siberian DNA Bundle (Blood Groups + PK-Def + Dilution + Colourpoint)

Test number: 8840

Price: £ 72.00 (including VAT) for all 4 tests

  1 ) Genetic Blood groups in cats

update September 2019: LABOKLIN holds the patent for the new improved test, which:
  • is validated for all cat breeds except Domestic Shorthair, and
  • can now check for more 'b' allele variants than ever before including the b3 which was identified by researchers at Laboklin, and
  • can check for the 'c' allele which is resposnible for the AB serotyp, and
  • only available at Laboklin
Breed
All Cat Breeds .
The Disease
The AB system is the major blood group system in domestic cats. The common blood types are A and B. Cats with bloodtype B have anti-A antibodies at a high titer and cats with blood type A have anti-B antibodies at a low titer. Cats with the rare AB blood type do not have anti-A or anti-B antibodies. These natural antibodies can leed to bloodgroup incompatibility that can be lethal. The condition is known as Neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI), first symptoms are dyspnea, vomiting and agitation.

A recent study at Laboklin identified a number of new variants involved in determining the different blood groups in cats. Our Genetic Blood Group DNA test has now been updated with the new variants and as a result we can now screen all cat breeds except Domestic Shorthair for genetic blood groups. The updated test can detect the 'b' mutation which is reposnible for blood group 'B' more accurately than before and in more breeds, and the 'c' mutation which is repsonsible for blood group 'AB' in Ragdoll and Bengal can now be detected.

The test is valid for all cat breeds except: Domestic Shorthair.

The new improved test is more comperhensive than any other commercially available tests.

Neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI):

Neonatal isoerythrolysis occurs when kitten with blood group A or AB (also known as C) are born to a queen with blood type B. A-type and AB-type kittens absorb the anti-A antibodies from the breast milk. The hemolytic disease that ensues can be lethal.

This incompatibility reaction, especially important for breeders, is neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI). Neonatal isoerythrolysis in cats, also called fading kitten syndrome, is a dissolution of the red blood cells.

Only new born cats with blood groups A or AB (also known as C) whose mother has blood group B are affected by NI. In pedigree catteries, neonatal isoerythrolysis may occur in first-born and multiparous queens with blood group B, if they are mated to toms having blood groups A or AB (also known as C).

The kittens, with blood group A and AB (also known as C), which were born healthy, however, take up the mother's antibodies with the colostrum. These bind to the erythrocytes, which are then destroyed. Anaemia, excretion of protein in the urine and jaundice are the consequences, so that the kittens usually die within the first week of life. In some cases, the intestinal barrier is already closed at the time of birth, so that the absorption of the immunoglobulins by the kitten is prevented. Therefore, some theoretically at-risk kittens may not develop neonatal isoerythrolysis. Thus, not all kittens with blood groups A and C whose mother is type B develop NI.

Good to know Blood type B kittens whose mothers have blood group A do not develop NI. This is due to the low anti-B antibody titre in blood group A queens.

As a rule, new born kittens with clinical symptoms cannot be treated successfully. However, neonatal isoerythrolysis can be prevented by determining the blood groups of possible breeding partners in advance and avoiding mating between queens with blood group B and toms with types groups A or AB (also known as C). However, if such mating does occur, the kittens with blood groups A or AB (also known as C) should be separated from their type B mother in the first 16-24 hours after birth to prevent antibody uptake before the intestinal barrier is closed. For the genetic blood group determination, Laboklin requires either an EDTA blood sample (0.5 - 1 ml) or 2 cheek swabs. The sample run time after sample arrival is approx. 3-5 working days.

Trait of Inheritance

Inheritance : N > c > b trait
Description

The differences between blood types is determined by the activity of cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH). CMAH is only active in type A erythrocytes and either absent or non-functional in type B red blood cells. This inactivity is caused by different mutations in the CMAH gene.

The original mutation which is causative for blood type B was found by Leslie A. Lyons research team and allows for correctly identifying 86 % of all type B cats which still left 14 % of serological type B cats misidentified, especially Ragdolls and Turkish Angora cats.

Our own research shows that additional screening for two other novel mutations correctly identifies 99% of all type B cats. By determining just these two novel variants all type A and B Ragdolls were identified correctly. These two mutations were also found to be causative for blood type B in Turkish Angora, Neva Masquerade, Scottish Fold as well as Domestic Shorthair cats

Leslie A. Lyons research team found another variant in CMAH which is responsible for blood type C (AB) in Ragdolls. We found that this specific mutation is not exclusively found in Ragdolls even though it is rare in other breeds. Type C Bengal cats could also be correctly identified by this mutation and it was also found in British Shorthairs, Maine Coons and Scottish Fold cats.

Since 2017 we practice a genotyping scheme with four variants, three of those to identify blood type B cats correctly and one additional to include the most common variant for blood type C.

The test now detects three genetic variants for the 'b' allele (268T>A, 179G>T, 1322delT) and one variant for the 'c' allele (364C>T).

The 3 'b' variants are also known as b1, b2, and b3.

Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1 - 2 weeks

  2 ) PK Deficiency (Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency)

Breeds
Abyssinian , Bengal (Leopard cat) , Domestic Longhair , Domestic Shorthair , Egyptian Mau , LaPerm Longhair , LaPerm Shorthair , Maine Coon , Norwegian Forest Cat , Ocicat , Savannah , Siberian , Singapura , Somali .
The Disease
Pyruvate kinase (PK) is an enzyme critical to the anaerobic glycolytic pathway of energy production in the erythrocyte. If erythrocytes are deficient in PK they are unable to sustain normal cell metabolism and hence are destroyed prematurely. This deficiency manifests as an hemolytic anemia of variable severity with a strong regenerative response. In cats, PK deficiency has been described in Abyssinian and Somali cats. The feline disease differs from the canine disease in that affected cats can have a normal life span, only intermittently have anemia, and do not seem to develop either osteosclerosis or liver failure. The clinical signs of disease reflect the anemic status of the animal and include exercise intolerance, weakness, heart murmur and splenomegaly.
Trait of Inheritance
PK is inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. Heterozygotes (carriers) do not have any clinical signs of disease and live normal lives. They are able to propagate mutations throughout the population however and it is therefore important that carrier animals are detected prior to breeding. PK deficiency can be detected, using molecular genetic testing techniques. These tests identify both affected and carrier animals. It is also possible to identify animals deficient in PK activity through enzyme analysis in those breeds where a molecular genetic test is not available.

Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The cat is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

It is very unlikely that the cat will develop PK Deficiency (Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency). The cat will never pass the mutation to its offspring, and therefore it can be bred to any other cat.

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / PK [ Heterozygous ]

The cat carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

It is very unlikely that the cat will develop PK Deficiency (Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency) but since it carries the mutant gene, it can pass it on to its offspring with the probability of 50%.

Carriers should only be bred to clear cats.

Avoid breeding carrier to carrier because 25% of their offspring is expected to be affected (see table above)

 

Affected

Genotype: PK / PK [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The cat carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The cat is likely to develop PK Deficiency (Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency) and will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring
Description

PK - The Mutation-based Test and its Advantages The genetic defect leading to the disease has been identified. By DNA testing the responsible mutation can be shown directly. This method provides a very high accuracy test and can be done at any age. It offers the possibility to distinguish not only between affected and clear dogs, but also to identify clinically healthy carriers. This is an essential information for controlling the disease in the breed as carriers are able to spread the disease in the population, but can not be identified by means of common laboratory diagnostic. If a particularly valuable animal turns out to be a carrier, it can be bred to a non-affected animal, and non-carrier puppies can be saved for the next round of breeding.

Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1 - 2 weeks

  3 ) Dilution / Dilute Coat Colour

Breed
All Cat Breeds .
Description

the dilute gene is responsible for the intensity of the coat colour by affecting the amount of pigments in the hair shaft. The pigment granules are clumped and distributed unevenly along the hair shaft, resulting in a clear colour.
 

The "dilute" phenotype in domestic cats affects both eumelanin and phaeomelanin pathway. The dilution of black results in a grey ("blue") phenotype, while dilute combined with orange appears as a cream colour, chocolate results in lilac, cinnamon results in fawn and orange in creme.

The dilute coat colour phenotype is caused by a single basepair deletion and is inherited in an autosomal recessive trait.

All coat colours and coat colour variants are inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait. The DNA test offers the detection of hidden colours or colour variants of these colours.

Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1 - 2 weeks

  4 ) Colourpoint Siamese and Burmese ( Siamese , Burmese and Mink )

Breed
All Cat Breeds .
Description

Siamese and Burmese patterns

The Siamese pattern is reponsible for a phenotype representing a mild form of albinism. This temperature-sensitive mutation produces normal colour pigment only at the cooler extremities of the body, causing a mask of the face as well as darkened paws and tail. The Siamese pattern is also called mask factor or point, since normal pigmentation occurs only at the cooler points of the body.

The Burmese pattern, the mildest form of albinism, is characterized by a normal pigmentation of the extremities and a slight shading of normal body colour.

Two mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme tyrosinase which is required for melanin production are responsible for these colour variants. This gene locus is called C-locus. The wild type allele C is dominant and causes full pigmentation, the Siamese cs allele is recessive and leads to the characteristic distribution of the dark colour on ears, mask, tail and legs when in the homozygous state. The Burmese pattern also follows a recessive inheritance and leads to the coat colour Burmese brown in the homozygous state, with varying degrees of black and dark brown.

How can the different genotypes for the colours chocolate and cinnamon and the Siamese and Burmese patterns be identified ?

Recently, the mutations leading to the different coat colours have been found in the USA, thus permitting the development of a genetic test for each of the colours. After validating these tests in collaboration with several german veterinarians and cat breeders, Laboklin can now offer the tests to all interested breeders. For the coat colour chocolate, Laboklin tests the four most important gene loci, therefore ensuring a very reliable test. For the coat colour cinnamon as well as the Siamese and Burmese coat patterns, only one mutation has been published to be responsible for the corresponding colour.

How does the genetic test work and how safe is it?

Firstly, the DNA which is the genetic information of an animal is isolated from a blood or a cheek swab sample. Then the genes of interest are amplified a million-fold by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to facilitate the following analysis. The analysis is automatically performed by a genetic analyzer and reveals the gene sequence of the region of interest.

Therefore, the mutations leading to the different coat colours can be seen directly and heterozygous carriers of these mutations can also be identified. Since the test is done mainly automatically, laboratory errors can be widely excluded.

Interpretation of the test results

The test results will be submitted separately for each coat colour, so that the genotype for each corresponding gene locus will be given.

Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
2 - 3 weeks
Price for the above 4 tests
£ 72.00 (including VAT)

To order:




new test:
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Predictive Height Test ( LCORL)
new test:

Tractability
new test:
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See also:

 
 
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