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LABOKLIN (UK)| Genetic Diseases | Dogs| Bolonka Zwetna (Tsvetnaya Bolonki) DNA bundle (cord1 (crd4-PRA), prcd-PRA, D-Locus d1, Furnishing)
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new test:      Paradoxical Pseudomyotonia (PP) in English Cocker and English Springer Spaniels  
new test:      Dyserythropoietic Anemia and Myopathy Syndrome (DAMS) in English Springer Spaniel
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   Dyserythropoietic Anemia and Myopathy Syndrome (DAMS) in English Springer Spaniel


Bolonka Zwetna (Tsvetnaya Bolonki) DNA bundle (cord1 (crd4-PRA), prcd-PRA, D-Locus d1, Furnishing)

Test number: 8833

Price: £ 132.00 (including VAT) for all 4 tests

  1 ) Progressive Retinal Atrophy (cord1- PRA / crd4 PRA)

Breeds
Beagle , Bolonka Zwetna (Tsvetnaya Bolonki) , Clumber Spaniel , Curly Coated Retriever , Dachshund , English Cocker Spaniel , English Springer Spaniel , French Bull Dog , Miniature Wire haired Dachshund , Miniature Long Haired Dachshund , Miniature Smooth Haired Dachshund .
Kennel Club
This test is part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA Testing Scheme in English Springer Spaniel, Miniature Wire haired Dachshund, Miniature Long Haired Dachshund, and Miniature Smooth Haired Dachshund.

for UK registered dogs, Laboklin can send results of the tests which are part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA testing scheme to the Kennel Club (KC) to be recorded and published as part of the Kennel Club scheme. Results will only be recorded and published by the KC if the result report includes the dog’s microchip or tattoo number along with either the dog’s registered name or registered number. Any test results that do not carry these identifying features will not be recorded by the Kennel Club.

In order to ensure that test results are sent to the Kennel Club, customers must also sign the declaration section on the order form to give Laboklin permission to do so.

important: When you sign the declaration, Laboklin will send the results to the KC on your behalf, and you do not need to send them to the KC yourself again to avoid unnecessary duplications.

The Disease
The cord1-PRA (Cone-rod dystrophy 1) is an inherited disease of the eye that occurs in English Springer Spaniel, Miniature Long-Haired Dachshunds and Smooth-Haired Dachshunds.

The retina is a thin layer of neural cells that lines the back of the eyeball. The vertebrate retina contains photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) that respond to light. The cones mediate high-resolution vision and colour vision. The rods mediate lower-resolution, black-and-white, night vision.

The degeneration of the retina results in loss of vision, often leading to blindness. There is currently no treatment for the disease. In contrast to rod-cone dystrophies, where firstly, rod cells are affected and secondly, degeneration of the cone cells results in complete blindness of the dog, cone-rod dystrophies are characterised by the relatively early loss of cone photoreceptors.

The earliest ophtalmoscopic signs could appear about six month of age but some dogs with the mutation are not diagnosed until much later in life, so owner may never see behavioural changes and never recognise that the dog can pass the mutation onto its offspring.

Since diagnosis of retinal diseases in dogs may prove difficult, the genetic test on cord1-PRA helps to diagnose a specific form of a disease and is also a useful tool for breeders to eliminate the mutated gene from the dog population.

Trait of Inheritance
Cord1-PRA is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. So there are three conditions a dog can be: it can be clear (genotype N/N or homozygous normal) meaning that it does not carry the mutation and will not develop the cord1-form of PRA. Since it also cannot pass the mutation onto its offspring, it can be mated to any other dog.

A dog which has one copy of the gene with the mutation and one copy without the mutation is called a carrier or heterozygous (genotype N/PRA); while it will not be affected by cord1-PRA, it can pass the mutation onto its offspring and should therefore only be mated to clear dogs.

Dogs that develop this form of PRA have two gene copies with the mutation (genotype PRA/PRA or homozygous affected); they will always pass the mutated gene onto their offspring and should also be mated only to clear dogs.


Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Progressive Retinal Atrophy (cord1- PRA / crd4 PRA). The dog will never pass the mutation to its offspring, and therefore it can be bred to any other dog.

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / PRA [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Progressive Retinal Atrophy (cord1- PRA / crd4 PRA) but since it carries the mutant gene, it can pass it on to its offspring with the probability of 50%.

Carriers should only be bred to clear dogs.

Avoid breeding carrier to carrier because 25% of their offspring is expected to be affected (see table above)

 

Affected

Genotype: PRA / PRA [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The dog is likely to develop Progressive Retinal Atrophy (cord1- PRA / crd4 PRA) and will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring
Description

By DNA testing, the responsible mutation can be shown directly. This method provides a test with a very high accuracy and can be done at any age. It offers the possibility to distinguish not only between affected and clear dogs, but also to identify clinically healthy carriers. This is an essential information for controlling the disease in the breed, as carriers are able to spread the disease in the population, but can not be identified by means of common laboratory diagnostic.

Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
2 - 3 weeks

  2 ) Progressive Retinal Atrophy (prcd-PRA): (8094P / 8127)

Kennel Club: results of this test is accepted by the Kennel Club
Breeds
All Dog Breeds , American Cocker Spaniel , American Eskimo , Australian Cattle Dog , Australian Shepherd , Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog , Australian Stumpy tail cattle Dog , Barbet (French Water Dog) , Bearded Collie , Bolognese , Bolonka Zwetna (Tsvetnaya Bolonki) , Cavapoo , Chesapeake Bay Retriever , Chihuahua , Chinese Crested , Cockapoo (English) , Cockapoo (American) , Cocker Spaniel , Dwarf poodle , English Cocker Spaniel , English shepherd , Entlebuch Mountain dog , Finnish Lapphund , German Spitz (Mittel) , Giant Schnauzer , Golden Retriever , Goldendoodle , Jack Russell Terrier , Japanese Chin , Karelian Bear Dog , Kuvasz , Labradoodle , Labrador Retriever , Lagotto Romagnolo , Lapponian Herder , Markiesje , Miniature Poodle , Miniature American Shepherd , Norwegian Elkhound , Nova Scotia Duck tolling Retriever ( NSDTR / Toller) , Parson Russell Terrier (PRT) , Poodle , Portuguese Waterdog , Schipperke , Australian Silky Terrier , Spanish Water Dog , Standard Poodle , Swedish Lapp Hund , Toy Poodle , Waeller (Wäller) , Yorkshire Terrier .
Kennel Club
This test is part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA Testing Scheme in American Cocker Spaniel, Australian Cattle Dog, Australian Shepherd, Barbet (French Water Dog), Chesapeake Bay Retriever, Chinese Crested, Cocker Spaniel, English Cocker Spaniel, Entlebuch Mountain dog, Finnish Lapphund, Giant Schnauzer, Labrador Retriever, Miniature Poodle, Norwegian Elkhound, Nova Scotia Duck tolling Retriever ( NSDTR / Toller), Portuguese Waterdog, Spanish Water Dog, Standard Poodle, and Toy Poodle.

for UK registered dogs, Laboklin can send results of the tests which are part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA testing scheme to the Kennel Club (KC) to be recorded and published as part of the Kennel Club scheme. Results will only be recorded and published by the KC if the result report includes the dog’s microchip or tattoo number along with either the dog’s registered name or registered number. Any test results that do not carry these identifying features will not be recorded by the Kennel Club.

In order to ensure that test results are sent to the Kennel Club, customers must also sign the declaration section on the order form to give Laboklin permission to do so.

important: When you sign the declaration, Laboklin will send the results to the KC on your behalf, and you do not need to send them to the KC yourself again to avoid unnecessary duplications.

The Disease
Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) as an inherited disease occurs in many dog breeds and also in different forms. The form of progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd-PRA) is a photoreceptor degeneration in dogs with varying ages of onset. This genetic disorder causes the degeneration of retinal cells in the eye: firstly, rod cells are affected, thus leading to progressive night blindness. Secondly, degeneration of the cone cells results in complete blindness of the dog, even in full light situations during the day.

Age of onset of clinical symptoms is typically in early adolescence or early adulthood. However, the onset of the disease may vary among different dog breeds.

Since diagnosis of retinal diseases in dogs may prove difficult, the genetic test on prcd-PRA helps to diagnose a specific disease and is also a useful tool for breeders to eliminate the mutated gene from the dog population.

Please note that Lapponian Herder can be affected two other forms of PRA, the IFT122-PRA and the Canine Multi-Focal Retinopathy (CMR) which is caused by a mutation in the BEST1-gene.

Trait of Inheritance
The mutation in the PRCD gene which has been suggested to cause prcd-PRA has recently been published by the group of Gustavo D. Aguirre at the University of Pennsylvania, USA, and could be found in several dog breeds. Prcd-PRA is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. So there are three conditions a dog can be: it can be clear (genotype N/N or homozygous normal) meaning that it does not carry the mutation and will not develop the prcd-form of PRA. Since it also cannot pass the mutation onto its offspring, it can be mated to any other dog.

A dog which has one copy of the PRCD gene with the mutation and one copy without the mutation is called a carrier or heterozygous (genotype N/PRA); while it will not be affected by prcd-PRA, it can pass the mutation onto its offspring and should therefore only be mated to clear dogs. Dogs that develop this form of PRA have two PRCD gene copies with the mutation (genotype PRA/PRA or homozygous affected); they will always pass the mutated gene onto their offspring and should also be mated only to clear dogs..


Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Progressive Retinal Atrophy (prcd-PRA): (8094P / 8127). The dog will never pass the mutation to its offspring, and therefore it can be bred to any other dog.

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / PRA [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Progressive Retinal Atrophy (prcd-PRA): (8094P / 8127) but since it carries the mutant gene, it can pass it on to its offspring with the probability of 50%.

Carriers should only be bred to clear dogs.

Avoid breeding carrier to carrier because 25% of their offspring is expected to be affected (see table above)

 

Affected

Genotype: PRA / PRA [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The dog is likely to develop Progressive Retinal Atrophy (prcd-PRA): (8094P / 8127) and will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
2 - 3 weeks

  3 ) Coat Colour: D-Locus D1 ( Dilution / Dilute )

Breeds
All Dog Breeds , Border Collie , Boston Terrier , Bulldog (English) , Chihuahua , Doberman Pinscher , French Bull Dog , German Pinscher , Koolie ( Australian Koolie ) , Labrador Retriever , Large Munsterlander , Miniature Pinscher , Newfoundland , Rhodesian Ridgeback , Staffordshire Bull Terrier .
Kennel Club
This test is part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA Testing Scheme in Labrador Retriever.

for UK registered dogs, Laboklin can send results of the tests which are part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA testing scheme to the Kennel Club (KC) to be recorded and published as part of the Kennel Club scheme. Results will only be recorded and published by the KC if the result report includes the dog’s microchip or tattoo number along with either the dog’s registered name or registered number. Any test results that do not carry these identifying features will not be recorded by the Kennel Club.

In order to ensure that test results are sent to the Kennel Club, customers must also sign the declaration section on the order form to give Laboklin permission to do so.

important: When you sign the declaration, Laboklin will send the results to the KC on your behalf, and you do not need to send them to the KC yourself again to avoid unnecessary duplications.

Description

The D locus is the primary locus associated with diluted pigment, which results in coats that would otherwise be black or brown instead showing up as gray, or blue in the case of black, and pale brown or Isabella / Lilac / Lavender in the case of brown. The melanophilin gene has recently been shown to be responsible, but not all of the dilute causing mutations have been identified yet.

A recessive mutation in the melanophilin gene was identified as the cause of colour dilution phenotypes in the dog. Two alleles (variants) are described: the dominant full colour (D) and the recessive dilute (d). Two copies of dilute are needed to lighten black pigment to blue / grey and brown (liver / chocolate / cocoa / red in border collie) pigment to lilac / isabella / lavender (in Pomeranian). A diagnostic DNA test identifies the specific variants of the MLPH gene.

Please note that in the Chow Chow, Thai Ridgeback and Sloughi breeds, there is another mutation that can cause coat colour dilution, it is the D2 Locus mutation and in those breeds both D1 Locus and D2 Locus mutations must be tested for complete analysis.

Please note that in the Chihuahua, Italian Greyhound, Mudi (Hungarian Mudi) and Hungarian Pumi breeds, there is another mutation that can cause coat colour dilution, it is the D3 Locus mutation and in those breeds both D 1Locus and D3 Locus mutations must be tested for complete analysis.

Please note that dilution (blue, lilac, isabella, etc) is just a colour and that it is not known to be associated with any health conditions

KC

Please note that this test is part of the KC DNA testing scheme in Labrador Retriever. If you would like Laboklin to send the result to the KC, please sign the declaration at the bottom of the form to give us a permission . Please note that the KC will oly publish clear results but would make a note of any result received.


Colour Dilution Alopecia (CDA)

There is no test for CDA and there is no evidence that CDA is caused by dilution

CDA is a genetic recessive inherited condition that causes patches of hair thinning or loss and may also include flaky and/or itchy skin. CDA occurs in dilute dogs (homozygous for the dilute gene d/d) in some breeds, however there is no direct link between CDA and the dilute gene, and there is no evidence that the dilute gene is responsible for CDA. It is though that there are other, not yet identified, genetic factors causing CDA in dilute dogs of some breeds. Any colour can carry CDA but symptoms are only expressed in blue and isabella dogs affected by CDA.

breeding

Since CDA is a recessive gene, it can, in theory, be bred out of most lines by breeding dilute dogs with healthy coats. Breeding healthy dilute dogs with healthy dilute dogs is one way to reduce the occurrence of CDA until testing becomes available.

Breeds known to be affected by CDA:

  • Bernese Mountain Dog
  • Boston Terrier
  • Chihuahua
  • Chow Chow
  • Dachshund
  • Doberman Pinscher
  • Great Dane
  • Irish Setter
  • Italian Greyhound
  • Mudi (Hungarian Mudi)
  • Newfoundland
  • Saluki
  • Schipperke
  • Shetland Sheepdog
  • Standard Poodle
  • Whippet
  • Yorkshire Terrier

 
Further reading
Coat Colour Inheritance Chartshtml file
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1 - 3 weeks

  4 ) Furnishings

Breeds
All Dog Breeds , Barbet (French Water Dog) , Griffon Bruxellois (Brussels Griffon) , Chinese Crested , Dachshund , German Wirehaired Pointer , Havana Silk Dog , Havanese - Bichon Havanese , Hungarian Vizsla (Magyar Vizsla / Smooth haired) , Lagotto Romagnolo , Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier , Various dog breeds , Hungarian Wirehaired Vizsla (Vizslak) .
Description

Furnishings refer to the longer facial hair around the eyebrows, moustache, and beard commonly seen in many breeds, including the wirehaired breeds. Presence of furnishings is dominant to the unfurnished version of the gene, which depending on breed may also be referred to as satin, or sleek. LABOKLIN offers a test to see if a furnished dog carries the recessive unfurnished trait.

This coat variant is called 'improper coat' in portuguese waterdogs.

In Hungarian Wirehaired Vizsla (Vizslak) this it is called Wirehair.

 
Further reading
Coat Colour Inheritance Chartshtml file
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1 - 3 weeks
Price for the above 4 tests
£ 132.00 (including VAT)

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