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LABOKLIN (UK)| Coat Colours / Length | Dogs| Coat Colour: C Locus (Albino, caL, OCA2) / Albinism / Leucism
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Coat Colour: C Locus (Albino, caL, OCA2) / Albinism / Leucism

Test number: 8644
Gene: C Locus
Important note when ordering this test:
From April 2022 when you order this test, we will run both cal and OCA2 at no additional cost.
Breeds
French Bull Dog , German Spitz (Mittel) , Lhasa Apso , Pekingese , Pomeranian , Pug .
The Disease
The test detects a specific allele that causes albinism in the Lhasa Apso, Pekingese and Pomeranian breeds. The test is only validated in those breeds.
Trait of Inheritance
cal: autosomal receissive which means that a dog must have two copies of the cal variant (cal/cal) to be full or partial albino.

OCA is thought to be semi-dominant or even dominant.


Inheritance : trait
Description

The term ‘albinism’ describes a group of disorders of the melanin synthesis. There are two known types of albinism:

  • the oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), where eyes and skin are affected, and
  • the ocular albinism (OA), where only the eyes are affected.
Depending on the function and the type of the mutation, the synthesis of eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments is blocked either completely or partially. If the synthesis of the pigments is blocked completely, the dog appears white with pink skin, nose leather, paw pads, lips and either pink or red irises.

Several breed-specific mutations in the SLC45A2 gene have been found to cause albinism in dogs.

The gene product of SLC45A2 is a membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP) and is involved in the pigmentation pathway. Therefore, mutations in SLC45A2 are associated with a reduction of the melanin synthesis.

One of the known mutations is located in exon 7 of the SLC45A2 gene which causes albinism in the Lhasa Apso, Pekingese and Pomeranian breeds. The mutant allele is also known as caL and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Although the mutation is expected to cause albinism in several small, long haired breeds, it does not explain albinism in all small dogs, since an albino pug has been found to be homozygous for the wildtype allele.

Another mutation causing albinism in a German Spitz family is located in the splice site of the first intron of the OCA2 gene (oculocutaneous albinism type 2). Since OCA2 plays an important role in melanosome biogenesis and eumelanin synthesis, the symptoms of this mutation are a hypopigmentation in skin, hair and eyes. In the examined German Spitz family, the affected puppies showed a light brown coat colour, lightly pigmented lips and nose and blue eyes instead of the expected black coat colour. The light brown coat colour darkened with age and the blue eyes turned into green, possibly due to an accumulation of pigment. The mutation seems to mainly block the eumelanin synthesis with a less pronounced effect on the phaeomelanin synthesis. The affected puppies exhibited translucent irises and squint in bright light (photophobia).

It is important to point out that this test does not explain all types of albinism, especially those found in small breeds such as pug.

Albino is known to be associated with health condition including UV-hypersensitivity, photophobia, hearing or visual deficits and even tumors (including cancer) which are sometimes related to all forms of albinis, and, therefore, we recommend to breed away from all partial and full albinism. Never the less, some dogs with partial albinism are healthy with good health and don't show any significant difference to fully pigmented siblings.

care is vital especially before exposure to sun light. Regular skin checkups are recommended.

Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Parameters
  • caL in Lhasa Apso, Pekingese, Pug, French Bulldog and Pomeranian.
  • OCA2 in German Spitz
Turnaround
1 - 3 weeks
Price
Number of Coat Colour Tests on the same dog Price (including VAT)
First Colour test £ 48.00
Each additional colour test on the same dog £ 24.00

To order:




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See also:

 
 
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