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LABOKLIN (UK)| Genetic Diseases | Dogs| Bull Terrier DNA bundle ( LAD + PLL + LP + PKD )
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Bull Terrier DNA bundle ( LAD + PLL + LP + PKD )

Test number: 8474

Price: £ 138.00 (including VAT) for all 4 tests

  1 ) Lethal Acrodematitis ( LAD )

Breeds
Bull Terrier , Miniature Bull Terrier .
Trait of Inheritance
.

Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Lethal Acrodematitis ( LAD ). The dog will never pass the mutation to its offspring, and therefore it can be bred to any other dog.

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / MKLN1 [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Lethal Acrodematitis ( LAD ) but since it carries the mutant gene, it can pass it on to its offspring with the probability of 50%.

Carriers should only be bred to clear dogs.

Avoid breeding carrier to carrier because 25% of their offspring is expected to be affected (see table above)

 

Affected

Genotype: MKLN1 / MKLN1 [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The dog is likely to develop Lethal Acrodematitis ( LAD ) and will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring
Description

Lethal Acrodematitis ( LAD ) is an inherited disease affecting the Bull Terriers and Miniature Bull Terriers breeds. The disease is characterised by poor growth, immune deficiency, and skin lesions, especially at the paws.Symptoms includ erythema and adherent scales on the the feet, elbows, hocks and muzzle. Hyperkeratosis of the foot pads is also seen. Immunodeficiency increases susceptibility to microbial infections including skin disease of the face and feet. Signs include stunting, splayed digits and eating difficulties. In older dogs, paronychia, nail disease and hyperkeratosis of the footpads develops, becoming severe in dogs over six months of age.

Puppies suffering from this condition have a greatly reduced lifespan due to infection, and they are often euthanized when the condition becomes very severe and painful.

The disease is caused by a mutation in the MKLN1 gene and a DNA test is now available at Laboklin.

Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1-2 weeks

  2 ) Primary Lens Luxation (PLL)

Breeds
American Eskimo , American Hairless Terrier , Australian Cattle Dog , Chinese Crested , Danish Swedish Farmdog , Fox Terrier , German Hunting Terrier , Jack Russell Terrier , Jagd Terrier , Lakeland Terrier , Lancashire Heeler , Lucas Terrier , Miniature Bull Terrier , Norfolk Terrier , Norwich Terrier , Parson Russell Terrier (PRT) , Patterdale Terrier , Pug , Rat Terrier , Sealyham Terrier , Teddy Roosevelt Terrier , Tenterfield Terrier , Tibetan Terrier , Toy Fox Terrier , Volpino Italiano , Welsh Terrier , Westphalia Terrier , Wire-haired Fox Terrier , Yorkshire Terrier .
Kennel Club
This test is part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA Testing Scheme in Chinese Crested, Jack Russell Terrier, Lancashire Heeler, Miniature Bull Terrier, Parson Russell Terrier (PRT), Sealyham Terrier, Tibetan Terrier, and Welsh Terrier.

for UK registered dogs, Laboklin can send results of the tests which are part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA testing scheme to the Kennel Club (KC) to be recorded and published as part of the Kennel Club scheme. Results will only be recorded and published by the KC if the result report includes the dog’s microchip or tattoo number along with either the dog’s registered name or registered number. Any test results that do not carry these identifying features will not be recorded by the Kennel Club.

In order to ensure that test results are sent to the Kennel Club, customers must also sign the declaration section on the order form to give Laboklin permission to do so.

important: When you sign the declaration, Laboklin will send the results to the KC on your behalf, and you do not need to send them to the KC yourself again to avoid unnecessary duplications.

The Disease
The zonula fibres secure the position of the lens. Dogs affected from PLL have painful glaucomas and blindness due to a dislocation of the lens due to a breakdown or disintegration of the zonula fibres. PLL can be inherited or acquired. Therefore the disease might also affect genetically free dogs. First clinical signs of the inherited form of PLL are detectable at the very young age of 20 months. A complete lens luxation typically occurs at the age of 3 to 8 years.
Trait of Inheritance
Recently, Cathryn Mellersh and colleagues (Farias et al., 2010) identified a mutation in the gene ADAMTS17 that is responsible for the development of inherited PLL.

The mode of inheritance of PLL is autosomal recessive. This means that PLL-affected dogs receive one mutated gene (allel) from the mother as well as from the father. Hence, the parents need to carry at least one mutated allel.

In most cases heterozygous carriers are healthy. However, it is estimated that about 2 – 20 % of the carriers will develop PLL.


Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

A dog like this is healthy and does not carry the mutated allel responsible for PLL disease. Offspring of this dog will not get the mutated allel.

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / PLL [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

The dog has one copy of the normal allel and in addition one copy of the mutated allel. Carriers have a low risk of developing PLL, however they will pass on the mutation to their offspring. In most cases heterozygous carriers are healthy. However, it is estimated that about 2 – 20 % of the carriers will develop PLL

 

Affected

Genotype: PLL / PLL [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The dog has two copies of the mutated allel. Affected dogs have a high risk of developing PLL during their lifetime. The mutated allel will be passed to 100% of the offspring. It is recommended to examine the eyes of genetically affected dogs every 6 months by a specialist in order to detect the clinical signs of PLL as early as possible.
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1 - 2 weeks

  3 ) Larynx / Laryngeal Paralysis ( LP )

Breeds
Bull Terrier , Miniature Bull Terrier .
Trait of Inheritance
autosomal recessive mode of inheritance with variable penetrance

Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

This animal does not carry the genetic defect and has no elevated risk of developing LD. The dog cannot pass the genetic defect to its offspring.

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / LP [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

This animal carries one copy of the defective gene. The dog has no elevated risk of developing LP. However, the defect will be passed to its offspring with a probability of 50%. Such an animal should only be mated to a clear Animal.

 

Affected

Genotype: LP / LP [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

This animal carries two copies of the defective gene and has an elevated risk for LP. Many of these dogs will develop LP during the first years of life.
Description

Laryngeal paralysis is an inherited disease affecting Bull Terriers and characterised by difficulties in breathing, especially during physical activity, and may cause death by suffocation in severe cases. Larynx paralysis may require surgery to relieve the difficulties in breathing. Clinical signs include decreasing exercise tolerance, progressive laryngeal stridor, voice impairment, episodes of breathing difficulties and collapsing. In the Bull Terrier and Miniature Bull Terrier, a genetic variant has been identified as a major genetic risk factor for an early onset form of laryngeal paralysis. Dogs which are homozygous for the variant are at 23 fold increased risk of developing the disease, and therefore, dogs carrying the varian should be bred with clear dogs to avoid producing puppies with two copies of the variant.

 
Further reading
Larynx Paralysis in Miniature Bull TerrierPDF file
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1-3 weeks

  4 ) Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

Breed
Bull Terrier .
The Disease
polycystic kidney Disease is a genetic slow progressing and irreversible disease charactarised by the presence of cysts in the functional areas of the kidneys, The size of the cysts varies from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm. Cysts grow and expand replacing the normal kidney tissue, as a result, the functionality of the kidneys declines, the disease is likely to end with chronic renal failure in middle to old aged dogs. The disease affects both kidneys.
Clinical Signs
Clinical symptoms may not appear in the early stages of the disease but it will appear when the disease progresses, signs include excessive water drinking, loss of appetite, increased urination, weight loss, sporadic vomitting and deppression.
Trait of Inheritance
BTPKD is an autosomal dominant disease with high penetrance, this means that positively affected dogs are highly likely to develop the disease.In this mode of inheritence, dogs who carry only one copy of the mutant gene are likely to develop the disease.

Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT trait
Description

Up until recently BTPKD was diagnosed using renal ultrasonography, however, now a DNA test is available at LABOKLIN, using a simple mouth swabs or blood sample it is possible to identify genetically affected dogs from very young age.

Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
2 - 3 weeks
Price for the above 4 tests
£ 138.00 (including VAT)

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