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**NEW**



Bengal Special offer:
4 Bengal Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Bengal DNA bundle (rdAc-PRA + b-PRA + PK-Def + Blood Groups) 



British Special offer:
4 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
British Short / Long Hair DNA bundle (PKD + pd-PRA + ALS + Blood Groups)



Burmese Special offer:
4 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Burmese DNA bundle (Hypokalemia (BHK) + Head Defect + Gangliosidosis (GM2) + Blood Groups



Birman Special offer:
5 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Birma DNA bundle (PKD + pd-PRA + Hypotrichiose + MPS6 + Blood Groups)



Maine Coon Special offer:
5 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Maine Coon DNA bundle (HCM1 + SMA + PK-Def + F11 + Blood Groups)



Ragdoll Special offer:
5 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Ragdoll DNA bundle (HCM1 + HCM3 + PKD + pd-PRA + Blood Groups)



Norwegian Special offer:
4 Breed Specific DNA tests for just £72.00 incl VAT
Norwegian Forest DNA bundle (PK-Def + Amber + GSD4 + Blood Groups)



Feline Special Offer:
8 cat DNA tests for just £84.95 including VAT
HCM, HCR, GSD4, PKD, PRA, PK-Def., SMA, Blood Groups

new bundle: White Swiss Shepherd DNA bundle
new test:      Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD) in Dachhsund  
new test:      Dyserythropoietic Anemia and Myopathy Syndrome (DAMS) in English Springer Spaniel
new Kennel Club DNA testing schemes with LABOKLIN:
   Dyserythropoietic Anemia and Myopathy Syndrome (DAMS) in English Springer Spaniel
  Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) in Basset Hound, Basset Fauve de Bretagne (Petit), and Norwegian Elkhound


French Bulldog DNA bundle (DM + HSF4 + CHG + Cy + CMR + CDDY/CDPA)

Test number: 8285

Price: £ 144.00 (including VAT) for all 6 tests

  1 ) Degenerative Myelopathy / Degenerative Radiculomyelopathy) DM (Exon 2) / SOD1

Breeds
Airedale Terrier , Alaskan Malamute , All Dog Breeds , American Eskimo , Bernese Mountain Dog , Bloodhound , Borzoi (Russian Wolfhound) , Boxer , Cavalier King Charles Spaniel , Canaan Dog , Welsh Corgi (Cardigan) , Chesapeake Bay Retriever , Cockapoo (English) , Cockapoo (American) , Fox Terrier , French Bull Dog , German Shepherd , Glen Of Imaal Terrier ( GIT ) , Golden Retriever , Goldendoodle , Pyrenean Mountain Dog (Great Pyrenees) , Hovawart , Pumi ( Hungarian Pumi / Pumik ) , Jack Russell Terrier , Kerry Blue Terrier , Labradoodle , Labrador Retriever , Lakeland Terrier , Northern Inuit (Tamaskan / British Timber Dog) , Nova Scotia Duck tolling Retriever ( NSDTR / Toller) , Pembroke Welsh Corgi , Poodle , Pug , Rhodesian Ridgeback , Rough Collie , Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier , Shetland Sheepdog (Sheltie) , Smooth Collie , Utonagan , Wire Fox Terrier .
Kennel Club
This test is part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA Testing Scheme in Chesapeake Bay Retriever, French Bull Dog, German Shepherd, Nova Scotia Duck tolling Retriever ( NSDTR / Toller), Rough Collie, and Smooth Collie.

for UK registered dogs, Laboklin can send results of the tests which are part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA testing scheme to the Kennel Club (KC) to be recorded and published as part of the Kennel Club scheme. Results will only be recorded and published by the KC if the result report includes the dog’s microchip or tattoo number along with either the dog’s registered name or registered number. Any test results that do not carry these identifying features will not be recorded by the Kennel Club.

In order to ensure that test results are sent to the Kennel Club, customers must also sign the declaration section on the order form to give Laboklin permission to do so.

important: When you sign the declaration, Laboklin will send the results to the KC on your behalf, and you do not need to send them to the KC yourself again to avoid unnecessary duplications.

The Disease
Canine degenerative myelopathy (also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy) is a progressive disease of the spinal cord in older dogs. The disease has an insidious onset typically between 7 and 14 years of age. It begins with a loss of coordination (ataxia) in the hind limbs. As of July 15, 2008 the mutated gene responsible for DM has been found present in 43 breeds including German Shepherds, Boxers, Chesapeake Bay Retrievers, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, and both breeds of Welsh Corgis. The disease is chronic and progressive, and resulting in paralysis.
Clinical Signs
Degenerative myelopathy initially affects the back legs and causes muscle weakness and loss, and lack of coordination. These cause a staggering effect that may appear to be arthritis. The dog may drag one or both rear paws when it walks. This dragging can cause the nails of one foot to be worn down. The condition may lead to extensive paralysis of the back legs. As the disease progresses, the animal may display symptoms such as incontinence and has considerable difficulties with both balance and walking. If allowed to progress, the animal will show front limb involvement and extensive muscle atrophy. Eventually cranial nerve or respiratory muscle involvement necessitates euthanasia. Progression of the disease is generally slow but highly variable. The animal could be crippled within a few months, or may survive up to three years
Trait of Inheritance
Tow alleles are invloved in Degenerative Myelopathy, A and G, therefore a test result can be A/A, A/G, or G/G.

Mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive with variable penetrance;

Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will show signs of the Degenerative Myelopathy

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / DM (Exon 2) [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will show signs of the Degenerative Myelopathy

 

Affected

Genotype: DM (Exon 2) / DM (Exon 2) [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The dog may or may not show signs of the disease
Description

SOD1-Gene

Please note that Exon 2 can be found in all dog breeds, there is another DM mutation in Exon 1 which can only be found in Bernese Mountain Dog, click here for more information.

For bernese Mountain Dog we have a special offer for both Exon 1 and Exon 2 at reduced price, click here for more details.

Sample Requirements
Buccal Swabs or 0.5 - 1 ml blood in EDTA Blood Tube
Turnaround
1 - 2 weeks

  2 ) Hereditary Cataract (HSF4) *

Breeds
Boston Terrier , French Bull Dog , Staffordshire Bull Terrier .
Kennel Club
This test is part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA Testing Scheme in Boston Terrier, French Bull Dog, and Staffordshire Bull Terrier.

for UK registered dogs, Laboklin can send results of the tests which are part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA testing scheme to the Kennel Club (KC) to be recorded and published as part of the Kennel Club scheme. Results will only be recorded and published by the KC if the result report includes the dog’s microchip or tattoo number along with either the dog’s registered name or registered number. Any test results that do not carry these identifying features will not be recorded by the Kennel Club.

In order to ensure that test results are sent to the Kennel Club, customers must also sign the declaration section on the order form to give Laboklin permission to do so.

important: When you sign the declaration, Laboklin will send the results to the KC on your behalf, and you do not need to send them to the KC yourself again to avoid unnecessary duplications.

The Disease
The cataract is one of the most common diseases in dogs and a hereditary form has already been described in 100 breeds. In addition to a genetic epidemiology, eye injuries, metabolic disorders (including diabetes) or nutritional deficiencies may also lead to cataracts.

The disease leads to blindness by a clouding of the lens. In the Boston Terrier, a distinction is made between two forms: the early form occurs at the age of a few months, always progressive, and ends in complete blindness, while the late form occurs after three years of age and expresses a highly variable course and severity of disease. The same genetic variant, as seen in the early form in the Boston Terrier, results in hereditary cataracts in Staffordshire Bull Terriers. Since this form is inherited autosomal recessive in both breeds, genetic testing allows for the determination of the genetic status, and thereby selective breeding.

* test carried out by partner lab

Trait of Inheritance
Autosomal recessive

Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Hereditary Cataract (HSF4) *. The dog will never pass the mutation to its offspring, and therefore it can be bred to any other dog.

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / HC [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Hereditary Cataract (HSF4) * but since it carries the mutant gene, it can pass it on to its offspring with the probability of 50%.

Carriers should only be bred to clear dogs.

Avoid breeding carrier to carrier because 25% of their offspring is expected to be affected (see table above)

 

Affected

Genotype: HC / HC [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The dog is likely to develop Hereditary Cataract (HSF4) * and will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
2 - 3 weeks

  3 ) Congenital Hypothyreosis / hypothyroidism ( CHG )

Breeds
Fox Terrier , French Bull Dog , Rat Terrier , Spanish Water Dog , Tenterfield Terrier .
Kennel Club
This test is part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA Testing Scheme in Spanish Water Dog.

for UK registered dogs, Laboklin can send results of the tests which are part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA testing scheme to the Kennel Club (KC) to be recorded and published as part of the Kennel Club scheme. Results will only be recorded and published by the KC if the result report includes the dog’s microchip or tattoo number along with either the dog’s registered name or registered number. Any test results that do not carry these identifying features will not be recorded by the Kennel Club.

In order to ensure that test results are sent to the Kennel Club, customers must also sign the declaration section on the order form to give Laboklin permission to do so.

important: When you sign the declaration, Laboklin will send the results to the KC on your behalf, and you do not need to send them to the KC yourself again to avoid unnecessary duplications.

The Disease
Hypothyreosis stands for all different kind of thyroid gland sub-function, independent of the origin. A lot of symptoms relate to Hypothyreosis including general symptoms like lethargy or increase in weight, as well as problems concerning heart, skin and nerves. In Spanish Water Dogs sub-function of the thyroid gland can originate from a genetic source. Affected dogs have a very short lifespan and normally die as puppies.
Trait of Inheritance
Autosomal recessive

Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Congenital Hypothyreosis / hypothyroidism ( CHG ). The dog will never pass the mutation to its offspring, and therefore it can be bred to any other dog.

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / CHG [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Congenital Hypothyreosis / hypothyroidism ( CHG ) but since it carries the mutant gene, it can pass it on to its offspring with the probability of 50%.

Carriers should only be bred to clear dogs.

Avoid breeding carrier to carrier because 25% of their offspring is expected to be affected (see table above)

 

Affected

Genotype: CHG / CHG [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The dog is likely to develop Congenital Hypothyreosis / hypothyroidism ( CHG ) and will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
2 - 3 weeks

  4 ) Cystinuria

Breeds
Australian Cattle Dog , Bull Mastiff , Bulldog (English) , English Mastiff , French Bull Dog , Labrador Retriever , Landseer , Mastiff , Miniature Pinscher , Newfoundland .
Kennel Club
This test is part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA Testing Scheme in Newfoundland.

for UK registered dogs, Laboklin can send results of the tests which are part of the Official UK Kennel Club DNA testing scheme to the Kennel Club (KC) to be recorded and published as part of the Kennel Club scheme. Results will only be recorded and published by the KC if the result report includes the dog’s microchip or tattoo number along with either the dog’s registered name or registered number. Any test results that do not carry these identifying features will not be recorded by the Kennel Club.

In order to ensure that test results are sent to the Kennel Club, customers must also sign the declaration section on the order form to give Laboklin permission to do so.

important: When you sign the declaration, Laboklin will send the results to the KC on your behalf, and you do not need to send them to the KC yourself again to avoid unnecessary duplications.

The Disease
Cystinuria is an inherited disorder caused by a defective transport of the amino acid cystine in the kidney tubules. Normally, cystine is filtered in the kidney and reabsorbed within the tubules, resulting in little cystine in the urine. Dogs with Cystinuria do not properly reabsorb the cystine (and a few other amino acids) in the kidney tubules, causing the urine to contain abnormally high levels of cystine. Cystine is insoluble in neutral pH or acidic urine, so excess urinary cystine results in the formation of crystals, which in turn can lead to formation of cystine calculi (stones) in the kidney and/or the bladder. Dogs suffering from Cystinuria suffer repeated urinary tract inflammations, and are at risk for urinary blockage, which can, if not treated promptly, lead to kidney failure, bladder rupture, and death. The average age of onset of clinical signs attributable to Cystinuria is about 4.8 years, but in Newfoundlands, signs appear as early as 6 months to 1 year, suggesting that Newfoundlands suffer from a more severe form of the disorder than other breeds.
Treatment of the Disease
Cystinuria in humans and dogs is generally treated with compounds that bind cystine and prevent crystal formation. The two most common drugs of choice are 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) and D-penicillamine. Little information is available on effective dosages for Newfoundlands, however, at least one study indicated that affected Newfoundlands require higher dosages of MPG than other dogs with Cystinuria. D-penicillamine was found to be of minimal benefit in reducing cystine calculi. This may relate to the fact that Newfoundlands suffer from a more severe form of the disorder than other breeds. Treatment with MPG can, in some cases, result in dissolution of cystine calculi, therefore eliminating the need for surgical removal of the stones. Unfortunately, some Newfoundlands are poorly responsive to medical treatment, suffering from recurring bouts of urinary dysfunction, and, oftentimes, requiring surgery to resolve urinary calculi.

In male Mastiff, Continental, English, French and Olde English Bulldogs, we test for the marker which has strong association with the occurrence of Cystinuria. Only intact males which are tested homozygous for the marker are known to show symptoms of the disease. Females are not known to show symptoms. Due to high occurrence of the disease it is not recommended to remove carriers from breeding to avoid compromising the gene pool, but carrier should only be bred with clear animals. In affected dogs which are showing symptoms of the disease, castration can alleviate symptoms.

Trait of Inheritance
  • in Newfoundland, Landseer, Labrador: autosomal recessive inheritance
  • in Miniature Pinscher: autosomal dominant inheritance
  • in Australian Cattle Dog: dominant inheritance. In this breed the disease in homozygous dogs (Cy / Cy) is more serious than in heterozygous dogs (N / Cy) .
  • In Mastiff, Bulldogs, Kromfohrländer and Irish Terrier: androgen-dependent expression.

Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL trait
Description

PCR

Cystinuria is a well-known hereditary metabolic disorder that leads to the formation of urinary stones and urinary obstruction. It has now been described in over 70 breeds. New studies have shown that this disease is very heterogeneous in terms of inheritance, mutation, frequency, severity, treatment and symptoms. A distinction is now made between the following subtypes of cystinuria affecting the different breeds:

The designation of type I cystinuria is used when the disease shows autosomal recessive inheritance, Type II when inheritance is autosomal dominant, and Type III for sex-limited/androgen-dependent inheritance (PH, UG, unpublished data). Additional types can be assigned if found. Specific mutations within each type should lead to phenotypes that are sufficiently similar that the same medical management and breeding advice applies to all cases within that type. Involvement of the SLC3A1 gene is indicated by adding - A, and similarly addendum of - B indicated involvement of mutations in SLC7A9.

  • Newfoundland, Landseer, Labrador: Type I -A - autosomal recessive inheritance
  • Miniature Pinscher: Type II - B - autosomal dominant inheritance
  • Australian Cattle Dog: Type II - A - dominant inheritance
  • Mastiff, Bulldogs, Kromfohrländer and Irish Terrier: Type III - androgen-dependent expression.
The type III genetic test is currently available for the variant which is known to be associated with symptoms of the disease in the Mastiff, Continental, English, French and Olde English Bulldog breeds since December 2016, however, there is currently no test available for Kromfohrländer and Irish Terrier. We test for a marker which is strongly associated with the occurrence of cystinuria. Type III Cystinuria affects only intact male dogs which have two copies of the cystinuria marker (cy/cy). Castration can alleviate the symptoms. Bitches do not show any symptoms but pass on the mutation to offspring.

Prevalence: between 8 and 16% of the dogs are genetically affected, while the carrier rate is between 32 and 50%. Targeted breeding reduces the frequency of the marker associated with the disease and is therefore desirable. Due to the high frequency of the gene, it is advisable that carriers should not taken out of breeding in order maintain the diversity of the gene pool. Dogs (Males or Females) tested Carriers (N/cy) should only be bred with clear dogs (N/N). Bitches tested genetically affected (homozygous for the mutation) (Cy/Cy) should not be removed from breeding but should only be bred with clear dogs (N/N). Mating with free animals is possible without any problems. The Labogen team will be happy to answer any further questions you may have.

 
Further reading
Canine cystinuriaHTML file
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1 - 2 weeks

  5 ) Canine Multi-Focal Retinopathy (CMR 1/2/3)

Breeds
American Bulldog , Australian Shepherd , Boerboel (South African mastiff) , Bull Mastiff , Bulldog (English) , Cane Corso (Italian) , Coton de Tulear , Dogue de Bordeaux (French Mastiff) , English Mastiff , Finnish Lapphund , French Bull Dog , Pyrenean Mountain Dog (Great Pyrenees) , Lapponian Herder , Mastiff , Miniature American Shepherd , Perro de Presa Canario , Swedish Lapp Hund .
The Disease
Canine Multi-focal Retinopathy (CMR) is a recently identified recessively inherited eye disease observed in a number of dog breeds which is characterised by the presence of numerous distinct (i.e. multi-focal), roughly circular patches of elevated retina with accumulation of material that produces gray-tan-pink colored lesions. These lesions, looking somewhat like blisters, vary in location and size, although typically they are present in both eyes of the affected dog.Discrete areas of tapetal hyper-reflectivity might also be seen.

The disease generally develops in young dogs before 4 months and might progress slowly, might appear to heal, or might even appear and then go away again. Some dogs affected with CMR do not show clinical symptoms of disease until later in life. Some lesions disappear with no remaining sign, while some lesions leave a wrinkled area. Some leave the lasting lesion of a blister formation. Most dogs exhibit no noticeable problem with vision despite their abnormal appearing retinas. And in almost all cases, CMR does not progress significantly over time. The disease seems to have a consistent pattern among the breeds identified so far, although lesions in the Coton de Tulear are often more serious and seem to remain longer than in some of the other CMR-affected breeds. In rare severe cases, the clinical diagnosis could be confused with progressive retinal atrophy (PRA).

Please note that Lapponian Herder can be affected two other forms of PRA, the IFT122-PRA and the prcd PRA

Trait of Inheritance
autosomal recessive mode

Inheritance : AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE trait


 

Sire

 

Dam

 

Offspring

         
clear
clear
100% clear
         
clear
carrier
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
clear
affected
100% carriers
         
carrier
clear
50%  clear + 50% carriers
         
carrier
carrier
25% clear + 25% affected + 50% carriers
         
carrier
affected
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
clear
100%  carriers
         
affected
carrier
50% carriers + 50% affected
         
affected
affected
100% affected

 


Clear

Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Canine Multi-Focal Retinopathy (CMR 1/2/3). The dog will never pass the mutation to its offspring, and therefore it can be bred to any other dog.

 

Carrier

Genotype: N / CRM [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Canine Multi-Focal Retinopathy (CMR 1/2/3) but since it carries the mutant gene, it can pass it on to its offspring with the probability of 50%.

Carriers should only be bred to clear dogs.

Avoid breeding carrier to carrier because 25% of their offspring is expected to be affected (see table above)

 

Affected

Genotype: CRM / CRM [ Homozygous mutant ]

 

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The dog is likely to develop Canine Multi-Focal Retinopathy (CMR 1/2/3) and will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1 - 2 weeks

  6 ) Chondrodystrophy (CDDY with IVDD Risk) and Chondrodysplasia (CDPA)

Breeds
All Dog Breeds , American Cocker Spaniel , Basset Hound , Beagle , Bichon Frise , Cavalier King Charles Spaniel , Welsh Corgi (Cardigan) , Chesapeake Bay Retriever , Chihuahua , Coton de Tulear , Dachshund , Dandie Dinmont Terrier , English Springer Spaniel , French Bull Dog , Havanese - Bichon Havanese , Jack Russell Terrier , Miniature Poodle , Miniature Wire haired Dachshund , Miniature Long Haired Dachshund , Miniature Smooth Haired Dachshund , Nova Scotia Duck tolling Retriever ( NSDTR / Toller) , Papillon (Continental Toy Spaniel ) , Pekingese , Pembroke Welsh Corgi , Portuguese Waterdog , Scottish Terrier , Shih Tzu , Toy Poodle , West Highland White Terrier , Welsh Corgi .
Description

Chondrodystrophy (CDDY with IVDD Risk) and Chondrodysplasia (CDPA)

The test checks for two mutations: CDDY with IVDD Risk, and CDPA, and so you will receive two results, one for each mutation.

Chondrodystrophy CDDY (FGF4-12) which causes short legs and the risk of developing Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD).

Chondrodysplasia CDPA (FGF4-18), which causes the short legged phenotype in a number of breeds.

Chondrodystrophy (CDDY with IVDD Risk) is a trait that is common to many dog breeds and it is characterised by shorter legs due to shorter long bones. CDDY can also be associated with Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) due to premature degeneration of the intervertbral disc. The intervertebral disc lie between the vertebrae and it is made of a cartilage which separate vertebrae from each other, absorb shocks and allow slight movement of the vertebrae. In affected dogs, premature calcification of part of the disc at early age (from birth to 1 year of age) results in degeneration of all discs in young dogs. These abnormal discs are susceptible to herniation into the spinal canal where the inflammation, and hemorrhage can cause severe pain and neurological dysfunction. CDDY is inherited as a semi-dominant trait which means that dogs with 2 copies of the mutation are smaller than dogs with only 1 copy. As for IVDD, the inheritance follows a dominant mode, meaning that 1 copy of CDDY mutation is sufficient to predispose dogs to IVDD.

The CDDY mutation has been found in breeds such as: Basset Hound, Beagle, Bichon Frise, Cardigan Welsh Corgi, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Chesapeake Bay Retriever, Chihuahua, American Cocker Spaniel, Coton de Tulear, Dachshund, Dandie Dinmont Terrier, English Springer Spaniel, French Bulldog, Havanese, Jack Russell Terrier, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, Pekingese, Pembroke Welsh Corgi, Poodle (Miniature and Toy), Portuguese Water Dog, Scottish Terrier, Shih Tzu.

The second mutation CDPA explains the short-legged phenotype known as chondrodysplasia (CDPA) in breeds such as Basset Hound, Pembroke Welsh Corgi, Dachshunds, West Highland White Terriers and Scottish Terriers. CDPA inheritance is considered to follow am autosomal dominant mode.

In some breeds both mutations are present and so breeders will be able to plan breeding to reduce occurrence of CDDY, while retaining the short-legged phenotype CDPA.

 
Further reading
FGF4 retrogene on CFA12 is responsible for CDDY and IVDDHTML file
Phenotypic Effects of FGF4 on IVDD (2019)HTML file
Sample Requirements
Whole blood in EDTA tube (0.5 - 1 ml) or Buccal Swabs.
Turnaround
1-3 weeks
Price for the above 6 tests
£ 144.00 (including VAT)

To order:




new test:
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)
new test:
ACAN Dwarfism (Chondrodysplasia)
new test:
Predictive Height Test ( LCORL)
new test:

Tractability
new test:
Coat colour Sunshire Dilution



See also:

 
 
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Tel. 0161 282 3066