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Laboklin Newsletter May 2020



COVID - 19 Update

We hope that you are all keeping safe and well?

We all have been somehow impacted by the COVID-19 and although we are doing our best to continue delivering our services as usual without interruptions, some delays are inevitable. The German Health Authority partnered with Laboklin on COVID-19 testing and therefore we have dedicated significant proportion of our resources to COVID-19 testing and as result there will be about one week delay to our usual turnaround.  Our goal is to make sure we give you the best customer experience. We are doing our best to support you.

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Premium SNP DNA-Profile


new ISAG 2020 recommendation


Laboklin Bengal cat breed




genetic fingerprint in high definition

We are pleased to be one of the first labs to adopt and offer the new advanced DNA profiling analysis which we perform in accordance with the brand new ISAG 2020 recommendation.

The new Premium SNP DNA-Profile opens up new horizons which are of particular interest to breed clubs because it has the potential to assess the genetic heterozygosity of the breed, the line as well as individual dogs, which is the aim of many breeders and clubs who want to maintain a healthy gene pool. It would also be possible to check how genetically related or distant the dog and the bitch before breeding. On the long term we are also considering integrating the heterozygosity data with the inherited disease data of the breed.

For many years breeders recognised that while inbreeding leads to increased uniformity and fixation of desirable breed traits and characters in the offspring, it comes with many potential problems including lower fertility, less “vigour”, birth defects, smaller size offspring, smaller litter size, shorter lifespan, reduced genetic vitality, and increase in genetic diseases. This is because inbreeding increases homozygosity and reduces heterozygosity. It is well known that many genetic diseases are caused by the expression of deleterious recessive alleles and so increasing genetic diversity will not only help in reducing the occurrence of genetic disease but will also increase the breed’s genetic fitness and its ability to evolve in the face of changes in the environment or disease.

Furthermore, premium DNA Profile has the potential to make it possible to verify fatherhood without the need for a sample from the mother or motherhood without the need for a sample from the father.

DNA profile is your animal's genetic fingerprint. It is the animal’s unequivocal identification which cannot be manipulated or destroyed, and it remains unchanged for the animal’s life. We store every DNA profile in our DNA database and so it is always available. LABOKLIN is certified by ISAG (International Society for Animal Genetics) and we perform our DNA Profile analysis in accordance with ISAG’s standards and specifications, which enable international comparability of DNA profiles with other laboratories.

The new ISAG recommendation was published in February 2020 and Laboklin is one of the first laboratories to implement the new standards. ISAG 2020 recommends analysing a minimum of 114 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism), and, an additional panel if needed in complex situations, however, at Laboklin we analyse 230 SNPs in one analysis. Each SNP describes a specific location on the DNA, which can take one of two possible forms. In addition, the sex of your animal is also checked with another SNP. The combination of all these SNP markers results in a unique DNA profile for each animal.

Premium SNP DNA-Profile

(new ISAG 2020 standard)

Classic STR DNA-Profile Profile

(old ISAG 2006 standard)

*   230 SNPs DNA-Profile which is unequivocal identification of your animal

*   Extremely accurate parentage verification with accuracy exceeding 99.99%

*   Potential to verify fatherhood without the need for a sample from the mother or motherhood without the need for a sample from the father.

*   Potential for the assessment of genetic diversity / heterozygosity of individual animals and breeds.

*   Not compatible with ISAG 2006


*  22 microsatellite-markers (STRs) each STR marker describes a length pattern on the DNA strand which differs in between individuals

*   parentage verification with over 99.99% accuracy

*   Not compatible with ISAG 2020





 Sample required:

- 0.5 – 1 ml whole blood in EDTA blood tube, or

- Buccal swabs

Please note that Premium SNP DNA-Profile may not be ordered on DNA from swabs which is already stored at Laboklin because extraction method is different, and so we will need a new sample.

If you club is interested in switching your DNA profiling from ISAG 2006 to the new Premium SNP DNA-Profile  ISAG 2020, or in genetic heterozygosity we will be very pleased to discuss your requirements and the possibility of setting up a new DNA database or heterozygosity project for your breed.

Price £66 including VAT

For more information please click here


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Dermatomysitis (DMS)

Collie (Rough and Smooth) and Shetland Sheepdog 


Dermatomysitis (DMS) is an autoimmune disease with a genetic background and additional environmental triggers. The disease is characterized by lesions of the skin on body-parts with minimal muscle overlay in affected Collies and Shetland Sheepdogs. While the onset of the disease is very variable, first symptoms might occur at about 12 weeks of age. Typical symptoms include hair loss and crusts in areas of legs and feet, the face and ears and the tail. In some cases, those symptoms weaken or disappear, sometimes even reappear during the life of a dog. In contrast to Shetland Sheepdogs, Collies often exhibit muscular dysfunctions like a high stepping gait, difficulties to swallow, drink and eat or muscle atrophy of the head and neck. The gold standard for the direct diagnosis of DMS is a skin biopsy. The genetic test analyses three variants that determine the risk for DMS. The complex multifactorial genetic trait needs an additional external trigger like vaccination or viral infection to cause symptoms of the disease. Stress-related factors are described to worsen the course of DMS. The likelihood of an individual dog developing DMS can be classified as low (0%-5%), moderate (33%-50%), or high (90%-100%) based on the genotype combination of locus A (PAN2), locus B (MAP3K7CL), and locus C (DLA-DRB1). Wild type alleles of loci A and B are represented by lower case letters, a and b, while the risk alleles are represented by upper case letters A and B. The risk allele at DLA complex (DLA-DRB1*002:01) is referred to as C, and the lower case letter c represents any alternate allele for DLA-DRB1.

Price £66 including VAT

For more information please click here

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Progressive Retinal Atrophy Type B1 PRA (HIVEP3)






Type B1 Progressive Retinal Atrophy in Miniature Schnauzer is another PRA mutation which causes an early onset form of the disease with symptoms occurring within the first five years of age. This form of PRA is caused by a genetic variant in the HIVEP3 gene. 

For some time Optigen, now GeneSeek, has been offering a marker test for Type B PRA in the Miniature Schnauzer. This test examines a genetic variant in the PPT1 gene, which has shown a correlation to symptoms of PRA in a scientific study (Murgiano et al). More recent scientific studies (Kaukonen et al) have now provided further insights:

The study also tested the PPT1 variant in the cohort. There were differences between the results for PPT1 and HIVEP3. All dogs with signs of the early PRA form showed the PRA/PRA genotype in both tests. However, there were also dogs that had the homozygous affected genotype for PPT1 but not for HIVEP3 and were symptom-free. This confirms that the newly discovered variant in HIVEP3 has a better correlation. Therefore, it is recommended to perform the new test according to Kaukonen et al.

Price £48 including VAT

For more information please click here

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Cocoa ( Brown / Chocolate ) in French Bulldog



We are pleased to announce that the recessive genetic variant of cocoa, which causes the brown coat colour in the French Bulldog breed has recently been identified, and, a test for Cocoa is now available at Laboklin. PLease note that teh brown coat colour in this breed can be caused either by the cocoa gene, the B-Locus or both.

Price £48 including VAT

For more information please click here

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Cardiomyopathy with Juvenile Mortality (CJM)


Cardiomyopathy and juvenile mortality (CJM) is an inherited disease affecting the Belgian Shepherd breed. The genetic variant that is associated with this disease has been identified and the test is now available at Laboklin. Affected puppies die at birth or at a maximum age of 6-8 weeks. In the latter case, puppies initially develop normally but then show unspecific symptoms like vomiting, uncoordinated movements, trembling or respiratory symptoms and die a few days after the first clinical signs, usually due to heart failure. The genetic analysis of CJM enables the selective mating of breeding dogs. Due to the autosomal recessive trait of inheritance, two copies of the mutation are required to cause the disease, and therefore dogs tested as carriers should not be removed from breeding but should only be bred with clear dogs to avoid having affected puppies.

Price £48 including VAT

For more information please click here

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Charcot -Marie - Tooth (CMT)





Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4B2 is an inherited demyelinating peripheral nerve disease affecting the miniature schnauzer breed. Affected dogs show regurgitations caused by mega-esophagus and inspiratory dyspnea caused by laryngeal paralysis at a young age (less than 2 years). Affected dogs have been alive more than 3 years following diagnosis which indicates a long survival rate. Typical pathological findings are variable thickness of the myelin sheath (so-called 'tomacula') around the axons of peripheral nerves and areas of segmental demyelination.

Price £48 including VAT

For more information please click here

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Leukodystrophy (LD)






Leukodystrophy is an inherited disease found in the Standard Schnauzer breed and associated with a mutation in the TSEN54 gene. Clinical signs are seen shortly after birth or start before the puppies are 4 weeks old. Symptoms include weakness and progressive neurological signs such as dysphagia, non-ambulatory tetraparesis or sudden death. Clinical signs also included hypermetric ataxia, circling, dysphoria, head tilt and tonic-clonic seizures.

Price £48 including VAT

For more information please click here

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Neuroaxonal Dystrophy (NAD) is now valid for Lagotto Romagnolo

Neuroaxonal Dystrophy is now valid for Lagotto Romagnolo, Papillon, Rottweiler and Spanish Water Dog. NAD is an uncharacterized juvenile-onset genetic disorder. Affected dogs exhibits various neurological deficits including gait abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Symptoms include slowly progressing neurological signs starting between six and eleven months of age. Owners of affected dogs reported gait abnormalities, behavioral changes (dullness, nervousness, vocalization) and incontinence alone or in combination with uncontrolled defecation. Mild head tilt, generalized mild cerebellar ataxia with hypermetria of the thoracic limbs and absent to depressed patellar reflexed. Additionally, affected dogs displayed varying degrees of compulsory pacing, proprioceptive deficits, decreased menace, visual deficits, positional nystagmus and decreased muscle tone.

Price £48 including VAT

For more information please click here

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New KC DNA testing schemes


The Kennel Club has recently set up new DNA testing schemes for the following tests:

- NECAP-1 Progressive Retinal Atrophy ( NECAP1 PRA / NECAP PRA5) in Giant Schnauzer

- Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) in Norwegian Elkhound

- Dwarfism (Chondrodysplasia / disproportinate short-limbed) in Norwegian Elkhound

A reminder that all results which are to be submitted to the Kennel Club must include 2 forms of identification. This can be in the form of a Kennel Club Registration name/number, as well as a microchip or tattoo number.... See more

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NEW KC DNA bundles

We are pleased to announce that we have recently set up new KC DNA breed bundles, each bundle includes only the tests which are recommended by the Kennel Club at a very special discounted price:

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Genetic Blood groups in cats

We would like to remind you that our new enhanced test for Genetic Blood Groups is exclusive to Laboklin. It is the most comprehensive test available.

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Laboklin has recently patented a new improved genetic test for detecting blood groups in cats. The new test is valid for more breeds than before, it can detect more ‘b’ allele variants than ever before, and can check for the ‘c’ allele which is resposnible for the AB serotype in Ragdoll and Bengal cats.
The AB system is the major blood group system in domestic cats. The common blood types are A and B. Cats with blood type B have anti-A antibodies at a high titer and cats with blood type A have anti-B antibodies at a low titer. Cats with the rare AB blood type do not have anti-A or anti-B antibodies. These natural antibodies can lead to blood group incompatibility that can be fatal. Early symptoms include breathing difficulties, vomiting and agitation. Neonatal isoerythrolysis occurs when a female cat with blood type B is bred to an A type male cat and the A type kitten absorb the anti-A antibodies from the breast milk. The recent Laboklin study identified a number of new variants involved in determining the different blood groups in cats. Our Genetic Blood Group DNA test has now been updated with the new variants and as a result we can now screen more breeds. The updated test can detect the ‘b’ mutation which is reposnible for blood group ‘B’ more accurately than before and in more breeds, and the ‘c’ mutation which is repsonsible for blood group ‘AB’ in Ragdoll and Bengal can now be detected. The new test is available for ordering and it is already included in Laboklin feline 8 test DNA bundle.

Price £48 including VAT

click here for more details

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Laboklin feline 8 tests health DNA bundle remains extremely popoular


Laboklin cat breeds



Our feline 8 tests DNA bundle is becoming more popular and provides breeders with the opportunity to test their cats for the most important DNA tests in one simple submission. The bundle is priced at £79.95 including VAT includes:


Some breeders often bring up the point that not all tests in this bundle are valid for their breed. This is correct; however, we know from our experience in dogs that many mutations may be found in breeds which are considered free from that mutation either by accident or due to dog showing symptoms. No one can eliminate the possibility that a mutation is passed to a breed from an unknown crossbreeding that occurred at some point in the past, or may already exist in your breed but is very rare. It may not make sense to order a test that is not valid for your breed and pay for it separately, however, when the test is already included in the bundle it is an opportunity to screen your line for such mutations.

click here for more details


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LABOKLIN is a DIN EN ISO / IEC 17025 Accredited laboratory


Laboklin Bengal cats


When selecting a lab for your genetic testing, you need to be sure that you will be supplied with accurate and reliable results. The technical competence of a lab depends on a number of factors which are assessed against internationally recognised standards to demonstrate the laboratory’s competence, impartiality and performance capability. it is like a qualification LABOKLIN is a DIN EN ISO / IEC 17025 Accredited laboratory. Accreditation is provided by the German National Accreditation Body DAKKS, (in the UK by UKAS). This means that all our tests are performed according to reliable standards and verified procedures. Our laboratory is not only subject to strict daily internal controls but also to regular external controls ensuring our adherence to the strictest standards LABOKLIN is not just about providing a test result, our genetic testing department is supported and backed by in-house specialised departments including Molecular Biology, Haematology, Serology, Pathology, Allergy, Histology, Endocrinology, Microbiology, Bacteriology and many more areas in the diagnostic spectrum since 1989.


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For genetic tests in dogs and cats, DNA sample can be either blood or buccal swabs:

   Request sample materials

Blood: 0.5 - 1 ml whole blood in EDTA blood tube. blood must be collected by a veterinary surgeon who will also sign the form to confirm animal identity. Vets usually have EDTA blood tubes, if not, your can request the tubes free of charge using the order material form (click here) , or email us ( ) and we will send you the EDTA blood tubes, please provide your address, the number of animals to be tested and the tests required.

Buccal Swabs: buccal swabs can be used by owners to obtain DNA sample from the mouth, buccal swabs are available from us free of charge and can be requested on the order material form (click here), or email (  and provide your address, the number of animals to be tested and the tests required. We will then send you a testing kit with instructions on how to obtain DNA sample from the mouth. Instructions can also be downloaded from this page.

When you receive the buccal swab testing kit, the kit will contain buccal swabs, instructions, order forms, labels and a return envelope. When you return the samples, please make sure that you weigh the envelope and put the correct postage, otherwise there will be delay.

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If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact me.


Kind regards


With kind regards

Dr Mansour Makki


Laboratory For Veterinary Diagnostics

125 Northenden Road


M33 3HF


Tel: 0161 282 3066

Fax: 0161 973 3434



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LABOKLIN (UK), 125 Northenden Road, Manchester, Greater Manchester, M33 3HF, United Kingdom